Veterinary bacteriology: information about important bacteria
|Categories:||Zoonotic; spore forming; notifiable diseases and bacteria|
|Etymology:||Genus name: small rod|
Species epithet: Greek anthrax coal, in reference to the black skin lesions of cutaneous anthrax
|Significance:||The consequences of an anthrax outbreak are serious. In Sweden only sporadic cases in animals have been reported between the years 1910 and 1971. There was an outbreak in pigs and cattle 1956-57. Thereafter three more outbreaks have been reported (1981 in Uppland, 2008 in Halland, and 2016 in Östergötland).
|Type Strain:||ATCC 14578 = NCTC 10340|
||Grey-white large irregular colonies (diameter 3-5 mm) without hemolysis, colonies become mucoid in the presence of CO2 and NaHCO3|
||Large non motile rods (1.0-1.2 x 3-5 µm) in chains. The rods have characteristic edgy corners (sometimes not visible at capsule staining). Can produce oval spores located centrally in the bacterial cell (sporangium).|
|Gram +/Gram -:||G+|
|Fermentation of carbohydrates:||
Gas production: Glucose (gas) -.
Other carbohydrates: D-xylose -.
|Spec. Char.:||B. anthracis can be distinguished from B. cereus and B. turingienses through the capsule, tiamine (vitamin B) dependent growth and that it is lysed by gamma phages|
|Reservoir:||Soil can contain B. anthracis spores|
|Virulence Factors:||Carries two plasmids (pX01 and pX02) with virulence genes. The plasmid pX01 contains toxin genes and pX02 genes for synthesis of the capsule, which consists of poly-D-glutamate. The toxin consists of three thermo labile protein components: factor I (edema factor), II (protective antigen) and III (lethal factor). The factors I and III block important signal systems in the cell. The capsule is composed of poly-D-glutamic acid and inhibits phagocytosis. B. anthracis also produces two siderophores (iron-binding substances), petrobactin och bacillibactin.|
|16S rRNA Seq.:|
||There are about 250 species of the genus Bacillus. Bacillus anthracis is very closely related to Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis, but the latter lack the plasmids pX01 and pX02.|
|Legislation:||Anthrax is a notifiable disease. Bacillus anthracis belongs to category A as a potential bioterrorism agent according to NIAID.|
|Comment:||Bacillus anthracis spores are very resistant and outbreaks can often be traced to old anthrax graves. If the grave is disturbed and the spores come up to the surface they can germinate (become vegetative cells).|
|Reference(s):||No. 87, 100, 121|
|New names of bacterial phyla|
The taxonomic category phylum was previously not regulated by the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP), but now this has changed and it was decided to revise the names of bacterial phyla. All phyla must be written in italics (which has been done on VetBact also before) and have the ending -ota.Published 2023-03-01. Read more...
|The taxonomy of chlamydias|
Species within the family Chlamydiaceae were previously divided into two genera Chlamydia and Chlamydophila. However, the differences between these two genera were not that great and many research groups have not accepted this division. Therefore, the genus Chlamydophila has been returned to the genus Chlamydia and this change has now been incorporated in VetBactPublished 2023-03-15. Read more...