|Species/Subspecies:||Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica|
|Categories:||Zoonotic; notifiable diseases and bacteria|
|Etymology:||Genus name: named after the American bacteriologist Edward Francis, who has studied tularemia.|
Species epithet: refers to Tulare county in California, where the disease was first described in rodents in year 1912.
Subspecies epithet: may be found in all arctic regions.
|Significance:||Is predominantly found in Asia and Europe, but occasionally also in North America. This subspecies is less virulent than subsp. tularensis.
|Type Strain:||GIEM 503.|
|Micromorphology:||Coccoid or short nonmotile rods.|
|Gram +/Gram -:||G-|
|Other Enzymes:||Tryptophanase - (= indole -), ureas -.|
|Spec. Char.:||Facultatively intracellular. May penetrate intact skin.|
|Vector:||Mosquitoes and ticks|
|Disease:||A mild form of tularemia, which is a zoonosis
|Virulence Factors:||The capsule can be a virulence factor.|
|16S rRNA Seq.:|
||Six species have been described within genus Francisella and this genus is related to Coxiella spp. and Legionella spp.|
|Legislation:||Tularemia is notifyable in Sweden. Francisella tularensis belongs to category A as a potential bioterrorism agent according to NIAID.|
|Comment:||Common in Sweden. The subspecies holarctica is less virulent than the subspecies tularensis.|
|New families introduced within the order Enterobacterales|
The order Enterobacterales (formerly called Enterobacteriales) previously consisted of bacteria with different properties and phylogenetically, these bacteria were far apart. In order for the taxonomy to be more in line with phylogeny, some of these bacteria have, therefore, been sorted into 6 new families.Published 2022-04-13. Read more...