Veterinary bacteriology: information about important bacteria
|Categories:||Causes hemolysis; spore forming; motile|
|Etymology:||Genus name: Almost a Bacillus sp.|
Species epithet: from larvae.
|Significance:||American foulbrood is common in the United States, but also occurs in Sweden, Finland and other European countries. The disease can cause significant economic losses where it is prevalent.
|Alternative Species Name(s):||Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae och P. larvae subsp. pulvifaciens har nu sammanförts till en art.|
|Type Strain:||ATCC 9545 = CCUG 28515.|
|Macromorphology (smell):||Produces mostly greyish-white colonies with diffuse edges. However, there are strains, which form orange pigmented colonies. Some of these (genotype ERIC 3) gives a clear hemolysis zone on blood agar.|
||Spore forming and motile rods (0.5-0.8 x 2.5-5.0 µm), which have peritrichous flagella.|
|Gram +/Gram -:||G+, but difficult to gram stain.|
|Other Enzymes:||Esculinase +, tryptophanase +, urease -|
|Biochemical Tests:||Citrate -, has mixed acid fermentation (Voges-Proskauer +)|
|Fermentation of carbohydrates:||
Other carbohydrates: Adonitol -, galactose +.
|Disease:||American foulbrood of honeybees.
|Hosts:||Honeybee (Apis mellifera)|
|Clinical Picture:||Abnormally high number of dead larvae (even in closed cells). Dead larvae produce a brown viscous residue in the cell, which can be pulled out with a match to a long thread. These residues contain large amounts of bacterial spores and can have a foal smell.|
|16S rRNA Seq.:|
||About 75 species and subspecies have been described within the genus Paenibacillus. Many of them were earlier regarded as members of the genus Bacillus.|
|Legislation:||On suspicion of American foulbrood (AFB) in Sweden, a complaint is required to the bee inspector or the provincial government by Swedish law. AFB is included in OIE's A-list of major animal diseases.|
|Comment:||Compare Melisococcus plutonius, which causes European foulbrood.|
|Reference(s):||No. 97, 128, 137|
|Link:||Amerikansk yngelröta - biologi, diagnos och bekämpning|
|The taxonomy of chlamydias|
Species within the family Chlamydiaceae were previously divided into two genera Chlamydia and Chlamydophila. However, the differences between these two genera were not that great and many research groups have not accepted this division. Therefore, the genus Chlamydophila has been returned to the genus Chlamydia and this change has now been incorporated in VetBactPublished 2023-03-15. Read more...
|New names of bacterial phyla|
The taxonomic category phylum was previously not regulated by the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP), but now this has changed and it was decided to revise the names of bacterial phyla. All phyla must be written in italics (which has been done on VetBact also before) and have the ending -ota.Published 2023-03-01. Read more...