|Categories:||Zoonotic; motile; notifiable diseases and bacteria|
|Etymology:||Genus name: named after the American bacteriologist W.H. Burkholder.|
Species epithet: refers to the disease (glanders, which in latin is "malleus").
|Significance:||Glanders has been globally distributed, but is now extinct in most developed countries. Sporadic cases occur in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, India, Pakistan, China, Central and South America. Rods is considered to be endemic in Mongolia.
|Old Species Name(s):||Pseudomonas mallei|
|Type Strain:||NBL 7 = ATCC 23344 = NCTC 12938.|
|Macromorphology (smell):||Grey translucent colonies without smell or pigments. Does not give hemolysis on blood agar.|
|Micromorphology:||Small coccoid and nonmotile rods (0.5-1 x 1.5-3 µm) with rounded ends and apperaring in pair or bundles. B. mallei lacks flagella in contrast to other members of genus Burkholderia. However, this bacterium can move inside a host cell by actin-based motility.|
|Gram +/Gram -:||G-|
|Metabolism:||Facultatively anaerobic (because it kan can utilize NO3- as final electron acceptor in the absence of oxygen).|
|Fermentation of carbohydrates:||Burkholderia spp. do not ferment carbohydrates.|
|Disease:||Glanders, which is a zoonosis.
|Hosts:||Equine animals (Equidae)|
|Clinical Picture:||Airway infections. Skin infection with small cracking abscesses and ulcers where the pus is very infectious.|
|Virulence Factors:||Capsule, sekretionssystem av typ III och IV as well as adhesion proteins, fimbria and system for quorum sensing.|
|16S rRNA Seq.:|
||About 100 species have been described within genus Burkholderia, which is related to genus Taylorella. The two species of genus Burkholderia, which have beebn included in VetBact, are very closely related.|
|Legislation:||In Sweden glanders is notifiable to the Swedish Board of Agriculture. Burkholderia mallei belongs to category B as a potential bioterrorism agent according to NIAID.|
|Comment:||Glanders is highly contagious, only a few organisms are needed and it is easily spread by aerosol.|