Veterinary bacteriology: information about important bacteria
|Species/Subspecies:||Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica|
|Categories:||Zoonotic; motile; notifiable diseases and bacteria|
|Etymology:||Genus name: named after the American bacteriologist D. E. Salmon.|
Species epithet: of the gut
Subspecies epithet: see Species epithet.
|Alternative Species Name(s):||Salmonella choleraesuis subsp. choleraesuis|
|Type Strain:||LT2 (serovar Typhimurium) = ATCC 43971 = NCTC 12416.|
||Medium sized greyish colonies (2-4 mm in diameter).|
|Micromorphology:||Motile rods (0.7-1.5 x 2.0-5.0 µm) with peritrichous flagella|
|Gram +/Gram -:||G-|
|Other Enzymes:||Ornithine decarboxylase +, tryptophanase - (= indol -), urease -|
|Biochemical Tests:||Citrate +|
|Fermentation of carbohydrates:||
Other carbohydrates: Dulcitol +. Cf. subsp. arizonae. Sorbose phosphate -. Ferments glucose under production of gas and acid.
|Spec. Char.:||Many serovars of S. enterica subsp. enterica can form a polysaccharide capsule, which is called the Vi antigen.|
||BG agar, MSRV agar and XLD agar are often used for S. enterica subsp. enterica. As fluid medium, BPW and RVS broth are used.|
|Disease:||Human gastroenteritis (salmonellosis)
|Hosts:||The serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis are common in many different species (including humans). Serovar Dublin is often found in cattle. The serovars Choleraesuis and Derby are particularly associated with pigs. The serovars Livingstone, Gallinarum and Pullorum are associated to poultry. Serovar Diarizonae is associated to sheep. |
Typhoid fever and Paratyroid fever in humans are caused by the serovar Typhi and Paratyphi, respectively, which are invasive and can cause serious systemic infections in humans. Serovar Typhi has only been detected in humans, while serovar Paratyphi has also been detected in some other animals.
A compilation of some frequently occurring serovars and their most common hosts can be found in the Term List under Salmonella serovars.
|Clinical Picture:||Diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain and fever.|
|16S rRNA Seq.:|
||Two species have been described within genus Salmonella. S. enterica belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae and is closely related to members of the genera Escherichia and Shigella. In fact, all members of these three genera Shigella form a monophyletic cluster (see Fig. 70:11 to the left).|
|Legislation:||Salmonella infections are zoonotic, notifiable in Sweden and some of them are regulated by the law of zoonosis. S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi, belongs to category B, as possible biological weapon according to NIAID|
|Comment:||There are at least 2600 different serovars of S. enterica subsp. enterica.|
|New names of bacterial phyla|
The taxonomic category phylum was previously not regulated by the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP), but now this has changed and it was decided to revise the names of bacterial phyla. All phyla must be written in italics (which has been done on VetBact also before) and have the ending -ota.Published 2023-03-01. Read more...
|The taxonomy of chlamydias|
Species within the family Chlamydiaceae were previously divided into two genera Chlamydia and Chlamydophila. However, the differences between these two genera were not that great and many research groups have not accepted this division. Therefore, the genus Chlamydophila has been returned to the genus Chlamydia and this change has now been incorporated in VetBactPublished 2023-03-15. Read more...