|Categories:||Motile; primarily of interest in human medicin; notifiable diseases and bacteria|
|Etymology:||Genus name: The vibrating organism|
AE: from cholera (a serious enteric disease)
|Type Strain:||ATCC 14035 = CCUG 9118 A = NCTC 8021|
|Micromorphology:||Motile straight or comma-shaped rods (0.5-0.8 x 1.4-2.6 µm).|
|Gram +/Gram -:||G-|
|Other Enzymes:||Tryptophanase + (= indole +), urease -.|
|Biochemical Tests:||Citrat +, methyl red +, Voges-Proskauer (+)|
|Fermentation of carbohydrates:||
|Spec. Char.:||Some strains can grow in up to 6% NaCl.|
|Virulence Factors:||Cholera toxin (CTX, Ctx or CT) forms a protein complex consisting of six subunits (1 A subunit + 5 B subunits). This type of toxins is usually referred to as AB5 proteins. CTX resembles the heat labile enterotoxin, produced by certain strains of Escherichia coli. CTX acts on certain proteins in the intestinal mucosa, leading to large losses of water in the intestine, which in turn results in severe dehydration.
The gene for CTX is carried by a filamentous bacteriophage, called CTXphi (CTXφ). This phage is temperate and can be integrated into the genome (one of the chromosomes) in V. cholerae. CTXφ can also be transferred between different strains of V. cholerae .
|16S rRNA Seq.:|
||About 120 species within genus Vibrio have been described. Members of this genus are closely related to members within the genera Aliivibrio and Listonella.|
|Legislation:||Human infections of V. cholerae are according to the Swedish communicable disease act notifiable to the county medical officer and the Public Health Agency of Sweden. V. cholerae belongs to category B as a potential bioterrorism agent according to NIAID.|
|Comment:||Produces cholera toxin|