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Veterinary bacteriology: information about important bacteria
Veterinary bacteriology

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Gram staining


Gram staining is a so called differential staining techniques, since one can distinguish two major groups of bacteria by this method. These two groups are gram positive and gram negative bacteria, which are stained purple and pink to red, respectively.


Gram-positive bacteria have a thick cell wall (peptidoglycan), which consists of several layers and can be likened to a network. Gram negative bacteria have a much thinner cell wall and also an outer membrane. Crystal violet (CV+), which is the primary dye binds to the negatively charged groups on the bacteria and stain them purple. Then iodine (I-) will be used to form a large complex (CV-I) with CV and thereby bind the stain to the bacterium. When Gram-positive bacteria are treated with the decolourizing solution (ethanol-acetone), the bacteria will be dehydrated and the colour retained. When Gram-negative bacteria are treated with the decolourizing solution the outer membrane will be dissolved and the thin peptidoglycan exposed, so that the CV-I complex is washed out. Then a counterstaining with safranin or basic fuchsin is performed to stain gram negative bacteria pink or red.


  1. Divide the slide  with the help of the diamond pen
  2. Disperse some colony material in a drop of NaCl, air dry (ev. In the incubator)
  3. Fix the specimen by moving the slide, with the preparation side up, 6-8 times through the burner flame.
  4. Add chrystal violet, wait for 1 minute
  5. Flood gently with Lugol's solution
  6. Add Lugol's solution (which contains iodine), wait for 1 minute
  7. Flood gently with acetone-ethanol solution
  8. Flood gently with water
  9. Add safranin, wait for 20 seconds
  10. Flood gently with water
  11. Remove the excess of fluid with a paper towel and allow to air dry until the specimen is completely dry

Gram-positiva bacteria

Members of the phyla Firmicutes and Actinobacteria (exception: genus Mycobacterium).

Gram-negativa bacteria

Members of the phyla Proteobacteria (exception: some members of the order Rickettsiales), Cyanobacteria and Spirochaetes

Updated: 2021-09-20.


The revised taxonomy of the mollicutes

The revised taxonomy of mollicutes (mycoplasmas) has now been introduced on VetBact, which means that many of the species have been given new genus names or moved to another higher taxon. 

Published 2021-11-25. Read more...

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